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Women with cervical cancer or with benign ovarian neoplasms, pelvic inflammation, or pregnancy were excluded from this study.
A total of 60 women met the criteria for enrollment: 40 patients with endometriosis, 10 patients with adenomyosis and/or leiomyomas, and 10 disease-free patients.
In the present study we investigated the involvement of AIF-1 in menstruation and the pathophysiology of endometriosis through examination of AIF-1 expression in human eutopic endometrium and endometriosis.
We also determined AIF-1 concentrations in peritoneal fluids from endometriosis patients and women without endometriosis.
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a cytokine originally identified in rat cardiac allografts with chronic rejection.
AIF-1 is expressed in various human immune-related tissues and is thought to play a role in inflammatory responses and the immune activation and function of macrophages.
Its exact pathogenesis is unclear; various factors are implicated, including estrogen dependency and inflammatory and immune responses (10, 11).
Patients with endometriosis show increased levels of activated macrophages, lymphocytes, and various kinds of cytokines in the peritoneal fluid (12, 13).
PCR products were electrophoresed in 2% agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide.An ovarian endometrioma, also known as a chocolate cyst, was resected for analysis from 30 patients.The severity of endometriosis was assessed according to the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine (r-ASRM) scoring system (15).AIF-1 is involved in the inflammatory response associated with human cardiac transplant rejection (2) and has documented expression in various human tissues and cells, such as macrophages in heart allografts, macrophage cell lines (2), spleen, peripheral blood leukocytes, thymus, liver, lung, and placenta (3, 4).AIF-1 has also been identified in inflammatory lesions of a rat model of autoimmune disease (5).
AIF-1 is thought to play a fundamental role in inflammatory responses and the immune activation and function of macrophages.